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Newcastle fringe suburbs attracting first-home buyers and investors with many options under $300,000: HTW

Wednesday, December 05, 2012


Towns and rural villages within an hour’s drive of Newcastle present first-home buyers and investors with many opportunities to acquire property priced under $300,000, though in some cases, employment, shopping and transport options may be limited.

Valuers Herron Todd White pick Cessnock, the fringe suburbs of Lake Macquarie and range of small rural towns to the north, south and west of Newcastle, where houses can be picked up below this benchmark.

“At Cessnock in the west, very basic and dated housing can be acquired for $150,000 to $200,000 as well as in fringe villages like Aberdare and Millfield.

“Further west in the town of Singleton, the coal mining boom is impacting on housing, seeing basic prices again rising to the $250,000 to $300,000 range.

“Singleton can further expect to benefit from the M15 expressway due to open in September 2013 making the region more accessible,” says HTW.

Outer-suburb buyers are being spurred on due to a tight rental market in Newcastle with the Real Estate Institute of NSW reported a 1.6% vacancy rate in October.

The median price of a Newcastle house is $655,000 and $430,000 for units, according to RP Data with BIS Shrapnel tipping strong capital growth of around 6% per annum over the next two years.

Apart from being Australia’s sixth biggest city with a population of 550,000, Newcastle is also a beneficiary of coal mining investment activity and is well connected to Sydney plane, train and by car via the Newcastle Freeway and the Pacific Highway.

Herron Todd White notes that affordable houses are “typically in areas with limited employment opportunities, shopping, education, and public transport.

“The typical purchaser of affordable housing is quite varied and includes a wide range of owner-occupiers, first home buyers and investors.

“In the current economic climate we are finding the most remote of locations experiencing greater sales periods than their more centralised counterparts.

South of Newcastle, first-home buyer and investor opportunities can be found on the southern fringes of Lake Macquarie, with cheaper housing is priced from around $250,000 to $300,000 in areas such as Doyalson and Wyee.

“Similar pricing occurs in the small villages near the Pacific Highway like Morisset, Dora Creek and Awaba.

Buyers with a penchant for rural living might consider the more remote areas of the upper north and north-west, around towns such Dungog, Stroud, Gloucester and  Buladelah, suggests HTW, with houses priced from as low as $150,000 to $200,000, but where “services and facilities are more limited”.

“Finally in the coastal areas of the north-east, lower end property around Hawks Nest and Tea Gardens can be acquired for around $250,000 to $300,000.

“Just to the south around Nelson Bay, older houses can sell for as low as $300,000.

“Over the last few years these coastal areas have experienced a significantly weakened market with the typical purchaser – an investor or holiday house purchaser having departed the market and sales periods have noticeably increased,” says HTW.

By Larry Schlesinger

By Larry Schlesinger
Monday, 03 December 2012

Capital City mediun prices remain flat - though Brisbane shows promise

Wednesday, December 05, 2012

The prices of Brisbane apartments increased by 2.3% over November to a median of $360,000, in contrast to a flat capital city housing market, according to the latest monthly update by RP Data-Rismark.

The gain over November means that Brisbane unit prices are now down just 0.8% year-on-year, delivering investors a total year-on-year return of 4.9%.

Brisbane unit investors are getting the second best rental return (alongside investors in Canberra units) across the eight capital cities, with a yield of 5.5%, with only Darwin higher at 6.6%.

The RP Data-Rismark November index shows the eight capital city dwelling prices unchanged at a median of $472,500 – following 1% decline in October – with Canberra (1.3%), Darwin (1.1%) and Darwin (1%) the only capital city markets to record dwelling prices rises of 1% or more.


The largest capital gains were found in Darwin (3.1%), Perth (3.0%), Brisbane (0.8%) and Sydney (0.6%).

The only cities where values were down over the three months ending November were Canberra and Melbourne (both -0.7%) and Hobart (-4.5%). 

Melbourne was the weakest capital city housing market over the month and the only to register a decline in its median prices, which fell 1% to a median of $486,000 while dwelling prices were unchanged in Sydney at $555,000.

Click to enlarge

Year-on-year, dwelling prices are virtually unchanged, indicating a housing market that continues to tread water, but with notable diversion in performance at an individual city level.

Darwin has been the strongest performer with total returns (capital growth plus rental returns) of 20%, followed by Perth (8%), Sydney (5.9%), Brisbane (5.1%) and Canberra (4.9%).

Self-managed super funds urged to be cautious with property investments (ATO)

Friday, November 23, 2012

The ATO today warned trustees of self-managed superannuation funds (SMSFs) to be cautious when investing in property.

Acting Commissioner Bruce Quigley said he is concerned people are using their SMSF to invest in property without fully understanding their obligations under the law or some people are seeking to take advantage of certain types of arrangements.

Mr Quigley acknowledged that investing in property can be a confusing area for some people.

"We have observed that some arrangements are deliberately entered into to get around the law, which can result in the fund's trustees being disqualified, facing civil penalties or even facing criminal charges. Those marketing properties to SMSF trustees as part of such arrangements could be referred to Australian Security and Investment Commission (ASIC)."

"The fine details are important and trustees need to be sure that property is the right investment for their SMSF and that the arrangement is legal,"

"We have also seen instances where holding trusts have not even been established at the time the contracts to acquire are signed. In other instances the title of the property is held in the individual's name rather than the trustee of the holding trust. Another common mistake is gearing in a related unit trust, which is not allowed under the law," Mr Quigley said.

"Some of these arrangements, if structured incorrectly, cannot simply be restructured or rectified. The only option may be to unwind the arrangement which could involve forced sale of assets at an inconvenient time. This could be very expensive for the fund with potential stamp duty and tax consequences."

"I urge trustees to get reliable, independent advice when making investment decisions and to obtain advice from us if they are contemplating entering into these sorts of arrangements. The responsibility for ensuring their SMSF complies with the law rests with them."

The upshot of this advice is to ensure you are getting reliable advice from specialist SMSF Advisors and Accountants who are experieced in assisting clients buy property through an SMSF. can assist.

How can you tell if a property deal is dodgy

Wednesday, November 14, 2012
How can you tell if a deal is dodgy? You can’t, but here are some clues:


  • If there is a middleman between you and the supplier (excluding standard real estate sales), then there is going to be big commissions built in. While the property may be OK, the commissions usually run from around $15,000 up to $40,000. You won’t know about it, as it’s often provided as an after-sales “kick-back” and it doesn’t have to be disclosed – there is no law around property investment advice, and so no disclosure requirement. Such a big commission will, in this subdued environment, take years to recoup and put a dampener on leveraging ability.
  • If the property exists in a state other than where it is being marketed, there has to be a reason why the locals haven’t snapped up the deal.
  • If the person advising you to buy the property is also representing the seller then it is not possible for their advice to be independent – it is biased, and the deal is likely better for the marketer than it is for you.
  • If the company selling the property waxes lyrically about how you are their first concern, it’s likely to be dodgy. It’s fine to sell property as a middleman but not fine to claim that your interests are with the buyer.
  • If there is any kind of incentive scheme, such as a rent guarantee or bonus, something is likely to be up. Property that makes a viable investment can sell itself.

Now is the time to take extra care. If you’d like to invest in property, you can do so safely, but you have to have your eyes open and take responsibility for your own successes and failures. Protect yourself with the following guidelines:

  • Beware of property being marketed by a seminar or telemarketer – such campaigns are expensive, and these people are paid big commissions that are hard to recoup through capital appreciation. Don’t believe claims that commissions aren’t built into the price – this is simply not possible.
  • Never sign a deal on the day you see it. If an extra incentive is offered to do so, be doubly wary!
  • Always confirm the value of a property through recent sales. Only recent sales can determine the actual value.
  • Be aware that forecasts on income are based on historical figures and do not consider future supply.
  • Be extra careful of off-the-plan – especially tax advantaged ones. They are often part of a huge development which will affect future supply and impact on your yields.

Most importantly, become educated before you become an investor. Too many people decide to invest and then go looking for a property, and this is why they are so vulnerable. Get that education under your belt first and then you will know how to spot a dodgy deal at 10 paces.

Margaret Lomas

Perth as a Standout in September

Wednesday, November 14, 2012

By Larry Schlesinger
Tuesday, 06 November 2012

Capital city house price growth slowed in the September quarter to 0.3%, led by a 1.8% rise in Perth's house price index to a median of $489,000, according to preliminary figures from the ABS.

If past revision history is anything to go by, Perth house prices are likely to be revised upwards in the December quarterly update, which is released in February.

The ABS revised its Perth June quarter result upwards from 0.6% to 1.2%, with Perth house prices now up 4.4% for the year to September.

The preliminary estimate for Perth follows rises in the previous three quarters (+0.5%, +0.9% and +1.2%), with the rise in the September quarter 2012 “driven by clusters with median prices below $700,000”.

Recently released RP Data-Rismark figures (which are not revised) show Perth house prices up 0.9% for the October quarter and up 3.8% year-on-year to a median of $475,000.

The ABS 0.3% rise for to the weighted average of the eight capital cities follows the previously reported June quarter increase of 0.5% being revised upwards to 0.6%.

As a consequence, the through-the-year movement has been revised from an estimated fall of 2.1% to an estimated fall of 1.9%.

Sydney also recorded an increase of 0.3% to $605,000, following falls in the previous two quarters.

Sydney house prices are 1.3% for the first nine months of the year, with the ABS noting that the small September quarter gain was driven by “clusters with median prices at the top and bottom of the range of prices.

“These rises were offset by falls in clusters with median prices between $650,000 and $1 million."

Melbourne’s house price index rose 0.2% to $468,000, the first rise in six quarters, to leave house prices down 2.3% for the year to September.

Brisbane house prices gained 0.4% to $434,000, while Hobart was up 0.2% to $348,000.

These rises was partially offset by falls in Adelaide (-0.6% to $384,000), Canberra (-1.1% to $535,000) and Darwin (-0.5% to $547,000).

The ABS also made revisions to capital city data for both June (first revision) and March (second and final revision) quarters

In June: Sydney (+1.5%, revised from +1.4%), Perth (+1.2%, revised from +0.6%), Adelaide (+0.4%, revised from +0.5%) and Darwin (+2.5%, revised from +5.1%). This was partially offset by falls in Melbourne (-0.2%, revised from -0.4%), Canberra (-1.2%, revised from -1.3%), Brisbane (-0.2%, revised from +0.1%) and Hobart (-1.0%, revised from -0.4%).

Final price indexes for the March quarter 2012 show no movement following a revision from a second preliminary estimated fall of 0.1%.

The movement through the year to the March quarter 2012 was revised from a fall of 3.5% to a fall of 3.4%.

In March the following second revisions were made: Perth (+0.9%, revised from +0.7%), Canberra (+0.7%, revised from +0.3%), Melbourne (-1.1%, revised from -1.3%), Adelaide (-0.9%, revised from -1.2%), Hobart (-2.9%, revised from -2.0%).

Property Recovery still well underway

Wednesday, November 14, 2012

Well, that was quick, wasn't it? Almost before it got started, the real estate recovery is over. Dead. Finito. No more recovery.

It echoes the mining boom. That's finished, too. The $300 million in resources developments under way are a figment of someone's imagination.

Just as the rise in lending for home purchases, with first-home buyer loans up 18% on last year, must be a mirage. The significant rises in residential rents in multiple locations I read about must have been a misprint. The improvement in clearance rates was clearly a dream and the gradual improvement in city prices from other sources a fabrication.

None of that counts because one month's figures from one careless research source found a small decline. On that flimsy basis, media organisations around the nation declared the market recovery over. Not a hiccup or a blip, but dead and buried.

AAP declared that the market had dropped because the impact of interest rate cuts had ended. This was roughly four weeks after the October reduction by the Reserve Bank and two to three weeks after the response of most lenders. I'm sure RBA board members would fascinated to learn that the impact of its rates decisions lasts only a matter of days.

There were many similar stories. The journalists who wrote those articles and keyed in those headlines should be ashamed, but I'm sure they're not. It would require a concern for accuracy, fairness and balance – a basic sense of professional decency – to have any remorse over a presentation of news that made a mockery of analysis and added to the great overwhelming pile of misinformation that's afflicting real estate consumers.

Why happens if the next month's figures come out and show a small rise in property prices? What stunningly inappropriate headlines will accompany that news? "Market in miracle rebound"? "Skyrocketing prices defy downturn."? "Economists warn of price bubble"? "US analyst predicts price crash"? "Sub-editor's brain explodes trying to dream up new superlative"?

Anyone who's been around real estate longer than five minutes knows sales data is never smooth or consistent. It's common to access data from four different sources about one location and get four conflicting answers.

One month's data from one source is meaningless.

To place such a categorical conclusion on a single month's figures from just one source - particularly a source that's so desperate to get into print that it's become careless – is irresponsible.

It's the reason newspapers are dying a long, slow, agonising death. Low standards, inexpert writers, cheap sensationalism.

Sadly, some of the new forms of media present as little better.

What's really happening in capital city markets? Nothing much has changed – there is a gradual, almost grudging, recovery underway in most cities, an event supported by most of the data coming in from multiple sources.

The markets in Perth and Darwin are rising strongly and investors thinking of buying need to get busy. Sydney and Brisbane are also trending in the right direction. Adelaide, Canberra and Melbourne are still patchy, with conflicting data from various research sources.

Outside the big cities many regional centres have had strong markets for some time, headed by Gladstone, Mackay and Emerald in Queensland.

The general trend is a return to growth, though moderate in most cases, notwithstanding one dodgy set of figures.

Terry Ryder is the founder of and can be followed on Twitter.

Property Investment and the mining boom

Thursday, October 04, 2012

Australian mining project investment to peak in 2014: ANZ

By Larry Schlesinger
Monday, 13 August 2012

ANZ forecasts mining projects to peak at around $37 billion in 2014 in its August Major Projects report.

Mining sector investment

Click to enlarge

Source: ANZ

Overall the bank expects infrastructure project investment to peak earlier in 2013 under revised projections, but to a higher peak.

"This largely reflects improved estimates of the timing of expected capital expenditure across years for the major LNG [liquefied natural gas] and coal projects," says ANZ.

Click to enlarge

Source: ANZ

ANZ says the majority of infrastructure investment will be concentrated in the mining and energy sectors, with the investment pipeline across these two sectors totalling $380 billion between 2012 and 2016.

Given the concentration of investment in the mining and resource sectors and related infrastructure (i.e. ports,railways and harbours), the resource-rich states of Western Australia, Queensland and Northern Territory will receive the lion’s share – around 75%, or $450 billion – of the total investment expected over this time frame.

Click to enlarge

Source: ANZ

Three rules of Property Investment

Thursday, October 04, 2012

Three things property investors must do to separate the wheat from the chaff: Terry Ryder

By Terry Ryder
Thursday, 13 September 2012

Confusion is the theme of most questions I get from property consumers. 

People seeking to invest are befuddled by two major factors: conflicting advice and media misinformation. 

The greatest area of confusion relates to where they should buy. Capital cities v. regional centres. Hill change v. sea change. Inner city v. outer suburbs. The lure of high returns and capital growth in mining towns, against of a chorus of “the mining boom is over” media sound bites. 

What do you believe? Or, more to the point, who do you believe? 

Wannabe investors have an unerring ability to accept advice from all the wrong places, including family members, friends with strong opinions, professionals who aren’t property specialists and advisers with vested interests in pushing them in a particular direction. 

Here’s my three-step process for sorting through the static and finding some wheat among the chaff. 

  1. Stop reading newspapers
  2. Challenge advisers
  3. Do your homework 

People usually think I’m joking which I tell them that Rule #1 for successful property investment is to stop reading newspapers. I’m deadly serious. 

Newspapers contribute nothing to the process of information gathering for property investors. They just fill people’s heads with misinformation and negativity. They’re a core reason why consumer confidence is so low in Australia. 

Despite everything people know about the pessimism and beat-up tendencies of newspapers, they still tend to take what they read as fact. They absorb headlines and five-second grabs on television and it becomes part of what they think is true. 

When it comes to information about real estate, newspapers are deadly. Most of the real estate content of metropolitan papers is written by people with no credentials. Much of it comes from a press release re-write, so propaganda is recycled as fact. And the recycling process is handled by non-experts. 

This week’s data on home loans is an example. The reality depicted in the ABS figures is that the number of home loans approved this year has generally been higher than last year. The latest month for which data is available, July, showed a 2% improvement over July last year. 

That’s been the trend all year: moderate improvement over 2011. 

But newspapers across Australia reported it as a decline (July was marginally lower than June), with comment that the figures were evidence of market weakness. Several articles featured the word “crisis” prominently. 

Why did they report it that way? Because the builder lobby groups, such as Master Builders Australia and the Housing Industry Association, pumped out their usual pessimistic press releases, and most newspapers ran with that. Journalists will always be attracted to a negative angle, no questions asked. 

If you’re serious about investing, you need to stop reading this rubbish. The internet, which has many specialist websites with quality information (yes, including mine, so feel free to challenge me), should be the primary tool for people seeking real estate education. Newspapers, increasingly, are redundant. 

Rule #2 is to challenge anyone presenting himself/herself as an adviser. Firstly, do they have any credentials to speak on real estate? I find many people confuse celebrity with expertise. The assumption is that if someone’s appeared on TV she/he must be an expert. Often, they’re not. 

Advisers also need to be grilled about their vested interest in the advice they’re giving. Many professionals, including accountants and financial advisers, are receiving big kickbacks from developers for steering their clients towards off-the-plan apartments. 

Whenever an adviser suggests investment in a particular market sector, consumers need to dispute that too. Quite simply, ask for evidence. Ask them what research they have to show that this is the best place to buy. If they can’t produce any, get another adviser. (As I said earlier, feel free to challenge me on my views.) 

One of the great furphies is that you must invest in “prime” real estate. Prime is usually defined as the inner-city suburbs. Anyone with the gift of the gab can mount an apparently plausible argument for the supremacy of the “quality” suburbs. 

That’s until you look at the figures. Most of the elite suburbs of our major cities have miserable records on capital growth. They’re highly volatile markets that seldom make money for investors. 

This is something I’ve research repeatedly over the years. With rare exceptions, the cheaper areas outperform the expensive ones on long-term capital growth. 

The recently reported sale of a Sydney mansion in Vaucluse is one of many examples. The “Hollywood-style” mansion sold for a reported $11.75 million. The vendor had paid $8.5 million in 2002 and, at face value, it looks like they made a few million. But the capital growth was an average annual rate of just 3.14%. 

That’s a similar outcome to my research into re-sales of homes in Wolseley Road, Point Piper, regarded by some as the most prestigious address in Sydney. The average capital growth rate was 3% a year, among the worst in the nation. 

Next time someone recommends one of these “prime” locations, challenge them. Ask for evidence to support the claim that “quality” property out-performs. The figures will show the opposite. 

At the end of the day, it all comes down to Rule #3: investors have to do their own research. Anyone who goes into the expensive business of property investment based on someone else’s advice, without doing any personal legwork, deserves the poor result that so many people get.

Terry Ryder

WA and Queensland Property Investment

Thursday, October 04, 2012

WA and Queensland housing markets to get demographic boost, but four years of cloudy skies for Victoria: BIS Shrapnel

By Larry Schlesinger
Friday, 14 September 2012

Immigration trends, vacancy rates, housing undersupply and employment prospects all favour Queensland and Western Australia to lead the next phase of housing market growth over the next two to three years, according to BIS Shrapnel.

But the stars are not lining up in Victoria, with BIS Shrapnel’s team of forecasters and economists tipping up to four years of pain and downturn for its economy and housing markets.

“There is a lot of pain to come for Victoria, and there is a danger of the state going into a longer downward cycle,” warns BIS Shrapnel managing director Roger Mellor.

The pessimistic outlook for Victoria was repeated by BIS Shrapnel chief economist Frank Gelber, who apologised for such a dark outlook for the state given his comments were made in Melbourne in front of Victorian building industry participants.

“The weakness we have seen in Melbourne so far is only just the beginning,” he says.

Gelber is also critical of the Victorian state government for pulling back on infrastructure investment and stimulus measures, including ending the $13,000 first-home bonus at the end of June.

The Queensland state government is also reining in spending and culling its civil service, but the state has the benefit of the mining boom and is also supporting new housing construction through the just-introduced $15,000 first-home owner construction grant.

Taking a look a recent immigration data, Angie Zigomanis, senior manager at BIS Shrapnel, says there is already evidence of a pick-up in overseas migration – not to the 2009-10 high of nearly 300,000, but expected to reach around 250,000 people by 2013-14. A drop in overseas student numbers due to the high Australian dollar will prevent migration reaching previous highs, he says.

“Of this increase, WA and Queensland are expected to see the biggest improvement as their economies post some of the strongest growth and also attract strong numbers of interstate migration,” says Zigomanis.

WA in particular is picking up a great share of new overseas arrivals – 20% currently, compared with a long-run historical average of 13%, according to ABS figures.

The rise in immigration will cause population growth to pick up from around 1.34% in 2010-11 to reach 1.73% in 2013-14, with proportionally greater shares of growth in WA and Queensland, says BIS Shrapnel.

Both these states, along with NSW, also have significant dwelling stock deficiencies, while Victoria has been building too many new apartments and houses.


Dwelling stock deficiency as at June of year (- indicates oversupply)



2012 estimate

2013 forecast

2014 forecast


28,900 units

38,600 units

49,400 units

52,800 units


4,700 units

-6,600 units

-12,700 units

-15,000 units


4,900 units

14,900 units

29,900 units

45,400 units

South Australia

-2,100 units

-2,400 units

-1,500 units

-100 units


2,300 units

16,900 units

33,800 units

46,000 units


-1,900 units

-3,100 units

-4,000 units

-4,100 units


300 units

500 units

1,100 units

1,700 units


0 units

-1,200 units

-2,300 units

-3,200 units


37,200 units

57,500 units

93,700 units

123,500 units

Source BIS Shrapnel andABS

BIS Shrapnel forecasts a 15,000 dwelling unit oversupply in Melbourne by the 2014 financial year, but in contrast a 52,800-dwelling undersupply in NSW, an undersupplyof 45,400  in Queensland and an undersupply of 46,000 in WA.

Also in WA and Queenslands' favour are relatively more affordable capital city housing markets and tightening rental markets. In Melbourne vacancies are rising, while median house and unit prices remain elevated.

"In a suburb like Morley, about nine kilometres north of Perth, the vacancy rate is 0.48%. People have to camp outside a property overnight with the hope of a getting a foot in the door,” says Zigomanis.

Also in Queensland and WA’s favour are strong jobs markets supported by the mining boom and businesses that service this sector – while Victoria has relatively little exposure to the resources boom.

The bottom line is that NSW and the mining states are at different stages of the property cycle than Victoria.

“Victoria and some of the smaller states and territories have supported residential building activity in recent years,” says BIS Shrapnel in its September 2012 residential property report.

“We are now starting to see the situation reversed as their economies slow and recent high levels of construction have created emerging oversupplies in those markets.

“On the other hand NSW and the mining states are coming off relatively low levels of residential building and their economies are set to show strong growth over [the next two-year] forecast period.

“With the demographic need for dwellings expected to pick up in line with stronger population growth in these states, significant stock deficiencies are beginning to emerge, particularly in Sydney.

“This will help drive an upturn in residential building  in these states over the forecast period, which will outweigh the falls experienced in the other states and territories.”

Property Investing in NSW Mining towns

Thursday, October 04, 2012

Mudgee leads list of 10 top-performing NSW housing markets with prices up 7.44%: Residex

By Larry Schlesinger
Tuesday, 25 September 2012

The central western NSW town of Mudgee, a hotspot for mining, agriculture and tourism, has been the top-performing NSW housing market over the past year, according to the latest Residex regional market update.

Mudgee district house prices are up 7.44% for the year to August, with a median house price of $272,500 following a gain of less than 1% in the previous 12-month period.

Residex reported a 16% jump in sales in Mudgee over this period, with 548 properties selling.

The median Mudgee rent is up 30% for the year to $410 per week, equating to an average yield of around 7.8%.

Mudgee ranked just above the Hunter Valley, where houses appreciated 7.18% over the year to August with a median price of $324,000.

Other strong performers were Riverina houses (4.27%), Penrith Windsor houses (3.95%) in Sydney’s West, Bathurst Orange Houses (3.43%) and south-west Sydney units (3.47%).

The worst-performing markets was upmarket Neutral Bay/Spit houses (-8.16%  to a median of $2.02 million) followed by north coast houses (Port Macquarie, Coffs Harbour, Foster), with prices down 5.53% to a median of $348,000.


Median price

Annual capital growth to August 2012

Median rent


Mudgee District houses





Hunter Valley houses





Riverina houses





Penrith Windsor houses





South West units





Bathurst Orange Houses





South units





Campbelltown houses





Newcastle houses





North West units





 The historic country town of Mudgee lies 270 kilometres north-west of Sydney in the fertile Cudgegong River valley and benefits from both agriculture, tourism and nearby mining activity.

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